unless this paragraph applies to a refugee falling within Section A(1) of this Article, who may invoke compelling reasons for previous persecution in order to benefit from the protection of the country whose nationality he has not claimed; Australia acceded to the 1954 Convention and the 1967-1973 Protocol. The Convention has been incorporated into national law, but has not been interpreted; Section 36 of the Migration Act defines as a protection visa criterion that “the applicant is a non-citizen in Australia, in respect of whom Australia has protection obligations under the Refugee Convention, as amended by the Refugee Protocol”. The refugee determination system did not begin to be developed in Australia until after the arrival of Indo-Chinese boat people from the late 1970s. (The “passage” of the few people who sought asylum in the 1950s and 1960s from communist countries was organized by foreign affairs, not immigration officials.) It was only when the number of asylum seekers increased rapidly in the 1990s that an extensive refugee determination system was developed within the immigration portfolio. This is the first decision-making by officials from the Department of Immigration, access to verification by an Independent Refugee Review Tribunal (LRP) and access to the Federal Court in matters of justice. 22. Travel documents issued by the Parties to refugees under previous international agreements shall be recognized and treated by the States Parties in the same manner as if they had been issued under this Article. While there is a system of rationing applicable to the entire population and which regulates the general distribution of scarce products, refugees receive the same treatment as food subsidies. The Convention`s core obligation of non-refoulement does not take into account the possible financial, social and political consequences for host countries. Full legal responsibility is assigned to the State that asylum seekers can reach and it is not possible to set a ceiling or limit on the number of people who can apply or who must be accepted. The settlement of refugees is expensive. (38) (In the case of the Australian offshore humanitarian aid programme, refugee costs are offset by skilled labour and business migration.) Considering that, on several occasions, the United Nations has expressed its deep concern for refugees and is endeavouring to guarantee refugees the widest possible exercise of these fundamental rights and freedoms, 1.
. . .