Iran, Iraq and Libya – all 14 members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the deal. The quality of each country on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be continuously monitored online (via the Climate Action Tracker and the Climate Clock). With ratification by the European Union, the agreement obtained enough parts to enter into force on 4 November 2016. Once ratified, the agreement will require governments to submit their emission reduction plans. They will eventually have to do their part to keep global temperatures well below 2°C above the pre-industrial period and “make efforts” to limit them to 1.5°C.